Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proantho-cyanidins. These compounds have potent anti-oxidant properties, and have a high affinity for collagen fibers in the body. They appear to work both by increasing the production of new collagen as well as inhibiting its breakdown. They strengthen the collagen by their presence, and protect it from free-radical,and inflammatory,damage. GSE inhibits the activity of the enzymes that break down collagen (hyaluronidase, elastase, and collagenase), and thereby decreases the breakdown of connective tissue in general and collagen in particular.
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